Key Sectors

Automotive

The automotive industry is a wide range of businesses involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's most important economic sectors by revenue.

 
Energy

The energy industry includes all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution. We consume large amounts of fuel, and the energy industry is a crucial part of the infrastructure and maintenance of society in almost all countries.

In particular, the energy industry comprises:

  • the petroleum industry, including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-user sales at gas stations

  • the gas industry, including natural gas extraction, and coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales

  • the electrical power industry, including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales

  • the coal industry

  • the nuclear power industry

  • the renewable energy industry, comprising alternative energy and sustainable energy companies, including those involved in hydroelectric power, wind power, and solar power generation, and the manufacture, distribution and sale of alternative fuels

  • traditional energy industry based on the collection and distribution of firewood, the use of which, for cooking and heating, is particularly common in poorer countries

 
Food

The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supply much of the food energy consumed by the world population. Only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what they grow, can be considered outside of the scope of the modern food industry.

The food industry includes:

  • Regulation: local, regional, national and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, including food quality and food safety, and industry lobbying activities • Education: academic, vocational, consultancy

  • Research and development: food technology • Financial services insurance, credit

  • Manufacturing: agrichemicals, seed, farm machinery and supplies, agricultural construction, etc.

  • Agriculture: raising of crops and livestock, seafood

  • Food processing: preparation of fresh products for market, manufacture of prepared food products

  • Marketing: promotion of generic products (e.g. milk board), new products, public opinion, through advertising, packaging, public relations, etc

  • Wholesale and distribution: warehousing, transportation, logistics

  • Retailing

 
Financial

For example:

Brokerage services - facilitating the buying and selling of financial securities between a buyer and a seller.

Venture capital is a type of private equity capital typically provided by professional, outside investors to new, high-growth-potential companies in the interest of taking the company to an IPO or trade sale of the business.

Angel investment - An angel investor or angel an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start-up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity. A small but increasing number of angel investors organize themselves into angel groups or angel networks to share resources and pool their investment capital.

 
Hospitality and tourism

The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise liners, and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is an industry that mostly depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or even an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance, direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, management, marketing, and human resources etc).

 
Import & Export

An import is a good brought into a jurisdiction, especially across a national border, from an external source. The party bringing in the good is called an importer. An import in the receiving country is an export from the sending country.

In international trade, the importation and exportation of goods are limited by import quotas and mandates from the customs authority. The importing and exporting jurisdictions may impose a tariff (tax) on the goods. In addition, the importation and exportation of goods are subject to trade agreements between the importing and exporting jurisdictions.

The term export means shipping the goods and services out of the port of a country. The seller of such goods and services is referred to as an "exporter" and is based in the country of export whereas the overseas based buyer is referred to as an "importer". In International Trade, "exports" refers to selling goods and services produced in the home country to other markets.

Export of commercial quantities of goods normally requires involvement of the customs authorities in both the country of export and the country of import. The advent of small trades over the internet such as through Amazon and eBay have largely bypassed the involvement of Customs in many countries because of the low individual values of these trades. Nonetheless, these small exports are still subject to legal restrictions applied by the country of export. An export's counterpart is an import.

 
Manufacturing

Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".

Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems. In a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more frequently directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation.

The increased use of technologies such as 3D printing also offer the potential to reduce the environmental impact of producing finished goods through distributed manufacturing.

 
Marketing

Marketing, advertising and PR exists in the majority of businesses in all sectors. They help organisations to connect with their audiences and to promote brands, messages and products.

 
Retail

Retail is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user. Retailers are part of an integrated system called the supply chain. A retailer purchases goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers directly or through a wholesale, and then sells smaller quantities to the consumer for a profit. Retailing can be done in either fixed locations like stores or markets, door-to-door or by delivery, online websites, electronic payment, and then delivered via a courier or via other services.

 
Services

The service sector provides a service, not an actual product that could be held in your hand. Activities in the service sector include retail, banks, hotels, real estate, education, health, social work, computer services, recreation, media, communications, electricity, gas and water supply.

Increasingly service sector businesses need to focus on what is now being called the “knowledge economy”. They need to keep ahead of other businesses by understanding what it is their customers want and be in a position to give it to them quickly and at low cost. One good example of this are banks which have gone through enormous changes in recent years.

 
Technology

The technology sector offers huge investment opportunity for investors. It is the largest single segment of the market, eclipsing all others (including the financial sector and the industrials sector). More than anything, technology companies are associated with innovation and invention.

There is no sector of the modern economy that technology does not touch and that does not rely upon the technology sector to improve quality, productivity, and/or profitability.

 

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